Welcome to Unit 2: How Europe Comes to Dominate the World

Class 32 D&F: 11/4; A: 11/7 (I will be absent at SEOMUN for D&F block, so you will have a substitute)

Class 31 D&F: 11/2; A: 11/3; (I will be absent at SEOMUN for A block, so you will have a substitute)

Class 30 D: 10/31; F&A: 11/1

  • Unit 2 Test

Class 29 D: 10/27, F&A: 10/28

Class 28 D&F: 10/26; A: 10/27

PORT 4: The East isolates itself from this Western exploration nonsense. Not everyone was excited to meet new people. China and Japan are good examples of countries who wanted to preserve their culture more than anything else...SO, let's find out why they really do NOT want you or your ships in their harbors!

  • ‘Why did China and Japan isolate themselves from the West?’

    *You already know some of this from "1421", your job here is to get a taste of the attitudes of the Chinese and Japanese leadership toward you and your expedition.

    Task 1: Source Analysis

    To get a first-hand account of the attitudes of the Japanese (Tokugawa) toward foreigners, Complete AP PARTS for EDICTS FOR 1635 ORDERING THE CLOSING OF JAPAN The edicts (laws) are the numbered part.

As you watch this video about Japan's attempts to build an empire in the 16th century, answer these questions:
  • 1) Who was "the Bald Rat"?
    2) Where did Japan hope to build its empire?
    3) What stopped it from building its empire as planned?
    4) Why didn't they try again?

    More about Japan's isolationism can be found in MWH pp94-97 (old hard copy) or pp108-113 (new and online). You can skim most of this, but you must read pp96-97 (old hard copy) or pp111-113 (new and online).

  • Japan wasn't the only Asian country that was isolating itself: read about what the Emperor Qianlong had to say in 1793 when the British wanted to open trade relations with China. What would have prompted China to respond in this way? Was it wise? Complete APPARTS on this source too.

    Remember you have limited time at this port as they are not very welcoming - so just take notes on the key information!

    Author: Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author’s point of view
    Place and Time: Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source
    Prior Knowledge: Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source
    Audience: For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?
    Reason: Why was this source produced at the time it was produced?
    The Main Idea: What point is the source trying to convey?
    Significance: Why is this source important? What inferences can you draw from this document? Ask yourself, “So what?” in relation to the question asked.

    ** At the same time that Europe was moving out into the world, to discover new territories and claim them for their own purposes, other parts of the world were pulling back. Isolationism became the policy of both China and Japan, two nations which had the technological know-how to challenge European hegemony. The Islamic Empire had grown too large, had fractured into 3 major regional empires: The Ottoman (Middle East/S.E. Europe/N. Africa), Safavid (Iran/Afghanistan/Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan,parts of Pakistan) and Mughal (India/Nepal/Bhutan/Bangladesh/parts of Pakistan) Empires. See map in MWH p61 (old hard copy) or p71 (new or online).Each was so concerned with maintaining control of their own territories, they had no political will or resources to consider building a maritime (sea) empire.

Class 25 F&A 10/18, D: 10/19, 26 F&A: 10/20 (shortened classes due to Parent-Teacher Interviews); D: 10/24 and Class 27 F: 10/24; A: 10/25

The European Age of Exploration
Finally we turn to the European Age of Exploration of the "New World" of the Americas and isolation of the "East"

Europe Explores, While Others Isolate Themselves

You will be exploring the Age of Discovery for Europe with your trustworthy seafaring partner and going at your own pace. Remember there is the potential for many rewards (in your case points toward a good grade) and potential for great danger on this voyage of learning. As you stop at each "PORT OF CALL" there will be a task to complete. Complete the tasks and add them to your "EXPLORER'S JOURNAL". MAKE SURE you title each task! The journal will be given to QUEEN BOYLE upon completion. Good luck avoiding the giant sea monsters and remember to claim everything you find for HUMANAVIA!

As Europe began to become more open-minded, it began to systematically accumulate knowledge in way that had never been done before the application of the scientific method. Old ideas were tested, and some were confirmed while others were shattered, creating a need for new hypotheses which in turn were tested. This led inevitably to a new curiosity about the world that lay beyond Europe's borders.

PORT 1: Getting ready for the voyage - Start your EXPLORER'S JOURNAL (which you need to create with partner) with your CORNELL notes from Chapter 3, Section 1 of MWH pp. 92-101.

Next add your discussion of these questions:

The Age of Exploration:Would you go?

The 15th and 16th century were a time of exploration and discovery for European nations. Taking advantage of new maritime knowledge and inventions, European powers undertook sea expeditions to expand their trade and influence.

  • What possible rewards might come from exploring the seas for new lands?
  • What are the risks involved in embarking on a voyage into the unknown?
  • What will you do if you actually run into other people?
Before You Leave

Your final task before leaving for the long voyage is FOR BOTH to look up ONE piece of new navigation technology you will be using so that you can teach your partner about how you will be using it. THIS INFORMATION COULD SAVE YOUR LIVES! Simply, search for ONE of the following tools and write a few sentences describing WHAT the instrument is and HOW it is used. (You can also look at p. 97 in your text to get you started.)
  • Astrolabe
  • Sextant
  • Compass
  • Caravel

PORT 2: Starting the Voyage - Getting to know your competitors. In order to beat your enemies in this race, you need to know more about them INCLUDING where they went, what their primary motivation was and the results of their explorations. We have already learned about the PORTUGUESE now let's turn our sights on to the the other European nations competing with HUMANAVIA for GLORY!

FIRST, it is time to begin compiling our MAP of the voyages so we can keep track of where everyone is going and the results of their voyages.

On the map provided and using your textbook, trace the voyages of any three of the following:

  • Vespucci,

  • DaGama,

  • Columbus,

  • Magellan,

  • Cortes,

  • Ponce de Leon,

  • Smith,

  • Hudson,

  • Cabot,

  • Cartier,

  • Verazzano, and

  • Marquette.



On your map, make sure that you include:

Create a chart with the following important information needed so we can keep track of everyone in the race

  • Explorer's full name and country sponsoring the exploration
  • Dates of voyage(s)
  • Size of fleet
  • And most importantly a summary of their (AND YOUR) discoveries/achievements and/or results of each journey. (I should see both positive AND negative results of their voyages!)

*Much information for this task can be found from pages 119 - 131 of your textbook! DO not disappoint your Queen. (if you value your head!)

PORT 3: Some impacts of Europe's Age of Exploration. There were were many world-changing impacts that were results of this time period. To be sure many were positive, however, there were also many that were negative. Nonetheless, these must be studied to understand our world today...

Your next task is to look at the Atlantic Slave Trade to get a better understanding of this sad chapter in our history. In your journals, respond to the following essential objectives as you watch the 2 short video segments and scan pages 132-136 in your text...

  • Identify the causes of African slavery.
  • Explain the Triangular Trade Route.
  • Identify the consequences of the slave trade.

Link for Atlantic Slave Trade Video 1

Link for Atlantic Slave Trade Video 2

This 9 minute clip from the movie Amistad is OPTIONAL, as it presents a realistic, and therefore quite disturbing portrayal of the slave trade.YOU ARE NOT REQUIRED TO WATCH THIS. The movie tells the true story of a shipload of African slaves in 1839 who managed to wrest control of the ship they were being transported on from the Portuguese slave traders, only to end up in slave-owning America, where they fought a successful legal battle for their freedom. The video is quite distressing at times, and contains scenes of nudity, although it is not of a sexual nature.
Amistad was directed by Steven Spielberg in 1997 and starred Morgan Freeman, Djimon Hounsou, Matthew McConaughey and Anthony Hopkins.

I'd like you to watch 4 very short clips from Amazing Grace, about the struggle of William Wilberforce, a British parliamentarian, to abolish the slave trade.
//Amazing Grace//: "Can Do Both", "I Once Was Blind", "Madagascar" and "Coffers of the King". Roll your cursor over the video clips, and the titles will appear at the top right.

Amazing Grace was directed by Michael Apted, and starred Ioann Gruffud and Albert Finney. It was released on DVD in 2007 by Bristol Bay Productions.

TASK 2: The Columbian Exchange and Rise of Global Trade is certainly another major impact of the explorations. The colonization of the Americas introduced new items into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. AGAIN, these exchanges had POSITIVE and NEGATIVE impacts for both.

Your task for this exploration is to read and take CORNELL notes on pages 137-141.


Class 24 F: 10/14; A&D 10/17

Class 23 F: 10/12 (shortened class due to PSAT); A: 10/13; D: 10/14

  • Regional Geography Test #2
  • So we are nearing the end of our unit, and hopefully to an an answer to the key question, "Why was it Europe, rather than any other region of the world, which came to dominate by the 18th century?"
    We've looked at why it wasn't China.
    Now let's look briefly at why it wasn't the Islamic Empires (we'll consider 3 of them), despite how far in advance of Europe they were in the 13th century.
    Then we'll briefly consider (next class) why it wasn't the empires of the "New World" such as the Incas or the Aztecs or other Asian empires such as Japan.
    Your unit test (class 25 F&A Tuesday October 18, D: Wednesday October 19) will consist of a short essay in which you will be asked to demonstrate that you can answer this key unit question with historical evidence.

    So your task today is to learn a LITTLE about the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Muslim empires. All you really need to know is WHERE they were, WHEN they were, and why they did not manage to dominate more than their region.
    • Examine and analyze all images in Chapter 2 "The Muslim World Expands" pp 60-77 (hardcopy) or pp 70-87 (online). Then read and take notes on these chapters in brief
    • You will be asked to locate the major Muslim empires (Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal) on a world map, and know the dates of each empire (see "Visual Summary p 78 hardcopy for a useful timeline).
    • Copy (by hand/computer, not cut & paste) into your notebook, the "Visual Summary" on p. 90 (online).

Class 22 F&A 10/11; D: 10/12 (D has a shortened class due to PSAT)

  • Using Venn diagram you completed, write two T3EL outlines (bullet points are fine, just be clear) with the following Topic Sentences:
  1. "Islam and Christianity share many common aspects."
  2. "While Islam and Christianity have much in common, they are very distinct faiths."

Class 21 F&A: 10/7 (shortened class due to PD day), D: 10/10

  • Peer edit of T3EL paragraphs.
  • Christianity and Islam: pp 700, 704 and 708 (online) or pp 612, 616 and 620 (hardcopy) and this . Complete a Venn Diagram comparing Christianity and Islam.

Class 20 F: 10/5; A&D 10/6

The Reformation

The Protestant Reformation began in the early 16th Century and was a time of major religious and political development in Europe. One would expect that the new "open minds" of Europeans might lead them to question, then challenge the church (and we mean the institution of the western or Catholic Christian Church as an institution, as distinguished from the Eastern Orthodox Christian Church -- Remember the "Great Schism"?)
As you watch the following clips, jot down 3 reasons for the Reformation, and 3 things that changed with the Reformation.

Now see if you would have been a Protestant, a Catholic or a Radical in that time, using this website

Paragraph Writing: Peer Review

Share the reformation paragraph you wrote for homework with a classmate and get their feedback on how well you managed to follow the T3EL format. Make any changes you want, and hand in for grading.

Class 19 F: 9/30; A: 10/4; D: 10/5

Bring your ideas together (Course work grade)
Key Skill: Synthesizing your ideas/Writing

Paragraph writing using T3EL ("Teethreel")

Paragraph writing (Eventually this year you will be writing full historical essays, let's start with the building blocks of a good essay - a solid paragraph)
Using the prompt below and the template provided, write a detailed body paragraph.
‘How did the Renaissance contribute to the opening of the mind in Europe?'
Develop a TOPIC SENTENCE (Thesis in an ESSAY) and use evidence to support your ideas.
Include the following key terms somewhere in your paragraph: Renaissance, Middle Ages, Humanism, Patronage, Secular, and 2 Renaissance "persons".
Step One: Plan your paragraph using the template below (dot-points are appropriate for this step) This is to be prepared for when you come in next class for the quiz.

Paragraph Writing: Using TEEEL Structure

Topic Sentence

This is the main idea that you want to make about the topic. It should state in one sentence what your paragraph is going to be about. E.g. The Renaissance contributed to the opening of the mind in Europe because ....


Write one or two sentences explaining your topic sentence. E.g. What was the Renaissance? What was happening in Europe?


Provide at least two pieces of specific evidence that support your topic sentence. This is a good place to discuss key people and events that contributed to the Renaissance.This should be 2-3 sentences in length.


This is a crucial part of the paragraph which requires some thought. Here, you need to explain how the evidence/examples you provided support your main idea in the topic sentence. This should be 2-4 sentences in length.

Link Sentence

This sentence summarizes your paragraph and links back to the main idea in the topic sentence. When writing an essay, the role of the this sentence is to link the paragraph back to your thesis

Step 2: Now that you have a detailed plan, write your paragraph in full sentence form. It should be 7-12 sentences in length.

Step 3: Proof-read your work and edit to improve spelling, grammar and vocabulary.

Step 4: Produce a final copy of your paragraph. Make sure that it is in hard copy with your name, date and block on it.

Class 17 F&A: 9/27; D: 9/28 and Class 18 F&A: 9/29, D: 9/30

  • Class 18 Regional Geography Quiz #1
The Scientific Revolution
  • The rebirth of interest in the ideas and values of classical Greece and Rome reminded Europeans that they were once BETTER, and perhaps they could be again. Humanism led Europeans to re-think man's role in nature, and to value other kinds of knowledge besides scholasticism. Suddenly, anything seemed possible! Europeans began to really "think outside the box". They questioned their lives and how they were governed, they questioned the authority of leaders and the Church and they questioned how things were done. This led to "revolutions" in all kinds of areas: art, literature, music, politics, economics, and, perhaps most important in the areas of SCIENCE (although actually that word wasn't even used then -- instead people spoke of "natural philosophy", but it's the same thing).

Let's look at one European who's mind had begun to open: Galileo Galilei (generally known as simply "Galileo"), from Pisa.

  • Galileo questioned "scientific facts" which had been held unchallenged for hundreds of years:
    The Church responded to such disturbing challenges with the creation, in 1542, of the Catholic Inquisition, whose job was to root out heresy of all kinds. They did this by putting individuals, like Galileo Galilei on trial for his ideas, and by censoring books which spread ideas which they considered wrong. Here are a few passages from the Bible which Gallileo's proof of Copernicus' theory of heliocentrism (the idea that the planets revolve around the sun) conflicted with:
    • “He has fixed the earth firm, immovable.” (1 Chronicles 16:30)
    • “Thou hast fixed the earth immovable and firm …” (Psalm 93:1)
    • “Thou didst fix the earth on its foundation so that it never can be shaken.” (Psalm 104:5)
    • “…who made the earth and fashioned it, and himself fixed it fast…” (Isaiah 45:18)
    • “The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.” (Ecclesiastes 1:5)
    • “Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” (Joshua 10, 12-13)

    • The Case of Galileo Galilei
    • galileo-trial.jpg
    • It is time to put Galileo on trial for heresy, just like the Church did in 1633.
    • As we proceed through the trial, think about the following questions:

    • 1. By silencing Galileo, the church wanted to suppress an idea. Do you this this was an effective strategy? Can an idea have a life of its own?

    • 2. Are there times when an idea is too dangerous to be openly discussed or taught?

    • 3. Galileo faced persecution for teaching new ideas. Could this happen today?

    • 4. Would you deny an idea you know to be true?

    • Fishbowl

  • You can see why the Church added Galileo's book "The Dialogues", which was a fictionalized conversation between two men who hold opposing views on heliocentrism. Forbidden Books Index

  • Is censorship the best way to stop an idea from spreading? Are there ideas today which you feel should not be shared, read or published?
    An open mind is beautiful thing... Here's a list of the top 10 most banned books in American libraries: Banned Books

  • Below is a list of the top 10 challenged books in the US during 2010. The titles in bold are books in the KIS Secondary Library. Other classic banned titles include all of the Harry Potter series, many Toni Morrison titles, Huckleberry Finn, To Kill a Mockingbird, A People's History of the United States, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and many others. Check out the displays in the library for more "banned" possibilities and be sure to exercise your right to read by picking up a banned book today!

    The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins (causes nightmares!)
    Twilight by Stephenie Meyer (too lusty!)
    The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie (inappropriate language!)
    And Tango Makes Three by Peter Parnell and Justin Richardson (gay penguins!)
    Brave New World by Aldous Huxley (negative view of society and immoral characters!)
    Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich (promotes economic fallacies and socialist ideas!)
    Crank by Ellen Hopkin (drug abuse!)
    What My Mother Doesn't Know by Sonya Sones (contains sexual fantasies!)
    Revolutionary Voices edited by Amy Sonnie (multicultural queer youth!)
    Lush by Natasha Friend (vulgar language and an alcoholic parent!)

    Here are a few interesting quotes on the practice of banning books

  • "Censorship ends in logical completeness when nobody is allowed to read any books except the books that nobody reads."-- George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright and critic (1856-1950)
  • “If this nation is to be wise as well as strong, if we are to achieve our destiny, then we need more new ideas for more wise men reading more good books in more public libraries. These libraries should be open to all—except the censor. We must know all the facts and hear all the alternatives and listen to all the criticisms. Let us welcome controversial books and controversial authors. For the Bill of Rights is the guardian of our security as well as our liberty.” John Fitzgerald Kennedy
  • “Censorship reflects a society's lack of confidence in itself. It is a hallmark of an authoritarian regime.” Potter Stewart quotes (American Judge and associate justice of the US Supreme Court (1958-81)
  • “Censorship: the reaction of the ignorant to freedom.” Anonymous
  • Every burned book enlightens the world. ~Ralph Waldo Emerson"
  • I wrote 'Tom Sawyer' and 'Huck Finn' for adults exclusively, and it always distressed me when I find that boys and girls have been allowed access to them. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean." Mark Twain
  • "I am opposed to any form of tyranny over the mind of man." Thomas Jefferson
  • "Censorship is telling a man he can't have a steak just because a baby can't chew it."-- Mark Twain
  • "All these people talk so eloquently about getting back to good old-fashioned values. Well, as an old poop I can remember back to when we had those old-fashioned values, and I say let's get back to the good old-fashioned First Amendment of the good old-fashioned Constitution of the United States -- and to hell with the censors! Give me knowledge or give me death!"-- Kurt Vonnegut, author
  • "Censorship is crippling, negating, stifling. It should be unthinkable in a country like ours.” (United States)– Norma Fox Mazer “
  • “They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.”– Benjamin Franklin
  • "The dirtiest book of all is the expurgated book."-- Walt Whitman
  • "There is no such thing as a moral book or an immoral book. Books are well written or badly written. That is all."-- Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, 1891
  • "The books that the world calls immoral are the books that show the world its own shame."-- Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, 1891
  • "I cannot and will not cut my conscience to fit this year's fashions."-- Lillian Hellman
  • "All of us can think of a book... that we hope none of our children or any other children have taken off the shelf. But if I have the right to remove that book from the shelf - that work I abhor - then you also have exactly the same right and so does everyone else. And then we have no books left on the shelf for any of us."-- Katherine Paterson
  • "What is freedom of expression? Without the freedom to offend, it ceases to exist."-- Salman Rushdie

  • Clearly, it's better to be open-minded than closed-minded right? People will, well, LIKE you more if you're open-minded! And of course there's always the chance that being open-minded could lead you to making a discovery, or coming up with an invention or new idea that no one else has though of yet, which would make you REALLY cool!

  • We going to ask you to introduce one of these open-minded people who made contributions to Europe, and the world, at a time when lots of people were, well, not so open-minded.

  • If there is a Renaissance figure who you would like to research who is not on the list, you must have my approval before choosing them.

  • Nicolo Machiavelli
  • Henry IV
  • Elizabeth I
  • Lorenzo di Medici
  • Catherine di Medici
  • Henry VIII of England

  • ART
  • Leonardo di Vinci
  • Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
  • Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino)
  • Filippo Brunelleschi
  • Hieronymus Bosch
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • Sandro Botticelli
  • Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
  • Giovanni Bellini

  • William Shakespeare
  • Sir Thomas More
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Dante Alighieri
  • Miguel de Cervantes
  • Francesco Petrarch
  • Giovanni Boccaccio
  • Geoffrey Chaucer

  • William Byrd
  • Tomas Luis de Victoria
  • Thomas Tallis

  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Henry the Navigator
  • Vasco da Gama

  • Martin Luther
  • John Calvin
  • Ignatius of Loyola

  • Galileo Galilei
  • William Harvey
  • Johann Gutenberg
  • Sir Isaac Newton

  • Check out this website to help you find some information on your RENAISSANCE FIGURE. Make sure you cite where you got your information! (MLA format!)

Read and take Cornell notes on MWH pp 165-170 (hard copy) or pp189-194 (online edition), Chapter 6.1 "The Scientific Revolution".

Class 16 A&D: 9/26; F: 9/23

We have already looked at how "backwards" Europe was in the Middle Ages (a.k.a. "The Dark Ages", from the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century)), while the Islamic world and China were experiencing their "Golden Ages". We could look at other regions of the world, like the Americas, or Africa, and find that they, too, were in many ways more advanced that Europe. So how did Europe come to dominate the world in the 18th century? Clearly the European Renaissance sparked some very important change. The Renaissance spans the 14th-17th centuries, hitting different countries at different times, but starting in what is now Italy (which didn't exist as a country then, but rather as numerous city-states, including Florence, Genoa, Rome and Venice). So let's look at what those positive changes (or legacies) were:

Let's begin by reading pp 46-51 in your online textbook. You can use the hard copy textbook for most of the reading (pp. 43-47), but you MUST look at the online text for "The Legacy of the Renaissance", p. 51. I am going to ask you to take notes using a new format, called "The Cornell Method", because it was created at Cornell University.
Here's an example of notes that I took for the part of Chapter 1 you were assigned to read before, "Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance", pp 37-39.
You will be expected to take Cornell notes on all textbook readings. Notes should be
  1. in your own words
  2. not complete sentences
  3. only the most important ideas, facts, dates and names; eliminate unimportant details
  4. should include the page numbers of the assigned reading, your name, block and date you worked on it
  5. typed or NEATLY handwritten
  6. BRIEF -- more is not better!
  7. Please include a brief notation telling me how long it took you to do this assignment (don't count time you were on iChat or FB! Only the time you were actually working). I am estimating this should take you about 1 hour.


As we watch these clips together I want you to think about 2 tasks.

FIRST, CAUSE and EFFECT. A great skill and at the heart of historical inquiry. As you are watching, record any causes of the European Renaissance you see and any effects of that period on Europe.

SECOND, come up with evidence that this time period will not only open up people's minds BUT also set the stage for Europe to move to world dominance.Florence, Italy

Class 15

D: 9/21

  • Final day to work on "1421" Reading assignment. By the end of class, you need to have 1) completed all tasks on the wiki (see Class 11), 2) analyzed all the maps and analyzed all maps and images, writing a brief summary of what each is conveying/telling us, and 3) completed your reading/highlighting to p. 71. FOR HOMEWORK, please complete the classwork for Class 13, which you missed (but stop after 20 minutes of FOCUSED work). Then you should be caught up with the other blocks.

A: 9/20, F 9/21

  • Complete European maps
  • APPARTS on Michelangelo's painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City) "The Creation of Adam". Just in case you forgot, here it is again:
Author: Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author’s point of view?

Place and Time: Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source?

Prior Knowledge: Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source

Audience: For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?

Reason: Why was this source produced at the time it was produced?

The Main Idea: What point is the source trying to convey?

Significance: Why is this source important? What inferences can you draw from this document? Ask yourself, “So what?” in relation to the question asked.

Class 14 A: 9/ 9, D: 9/19, F: 9/20

GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPENow that we are in Europe we really must know the setting. After all, geography is part of the picture...hey, it is the picture. Attached are all the nations of Europe you are expected to know in this course. Pay attention to them and find them on the map given.

For this unit’s geography quiz, we will be focusing on the nations that were significant in Europe during the Renaissance period. Label them ALL but you are only responsible NOW for knowing the nations with a “Q” for a quiz

Spain (Q)
Germany (Q)
Italy (Q)
United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales) (Q)
Ireland (Q)
Norway (Q)
Belgium (Q)
Sweden (Q)
Switzerland (Q)
Austria (Q)
Poland (Q)
Czech Republic (Q)
France (Q)
Portugal (Q)
The Netherlands (Q)
Greece (Q)
Russia (Q)
Turkey (Q)

Physical Features:
Atlantic Ocean (Q)
Mediterranean Sea (Q)
North Sea
English Channel (Q)
Adriatic Sea (Q)
Pyrenees Mountains (Q)
Danube River (Q)
Rhine River (Q)

Florence (Q)
Genoa (Q)
Venice (Q)
Cordoba (Q)
Paris (Q)
London (Q)
Lisbon (Q)
Antwerp (Q)


Using the image below, complete SEE, THINK, WONDER.


Some examples to get you started:
I see... a naked man...
I think... that this is a painting...
I wonder... why he is naked...

There are no wrong answers. I just want you to write down what you SEE, THINK and WONDER.
Respond to these queries on your own gallery page.

Class 13 A & D: 9/8, F: 9/13

A block: Analyze these images as you did for your earlier 1421 assignment. Read and sections as instructed, and highlight the key points.

China's Age of Exploration II
Zhu Di's grand dream to bring the entire world into China's tributary system. This was a loose, but extremely stable way to organize and control an empire: make neighboring countries pay tribute (to acknowledge that you're the boss), but then, to keep them from feeling resentment, give them presents in return that more than exceed the value of the tribute they pay. Result? A stable trading empire, no wars between central power and tributary states, relatively cheap cost of governing a large territory! Smart, right?It worked so well, Zhu Di wondered why China could not do the same thing for the whole world. He also wanted to search the world for that nasty cousin of his, the one who had become the second Ming emperor, and then disappeared when Zhu Di raised an army to gain the throne. He appointed his Grand Eunuch (a "eunuch" is a man who's, well, had some important parts of his anatomy cut off!) to be the Commander-in-Chief of a vast fleet -- the biggest the world had ever known (and the biggest it would know until the Allies' D-Day Invasion in World War II!). Zheng He was a Muslim (Yes, there are Muslims in China!) who had never sailed before, but he became one of the world greatest admirals.


Zheng He's fleet made 7 voyages in all, dying on his last one, in 1433. When his ships returned to China, the political situation had changed dramatically. In fact, soon after the great Treasure Fleet left Tanggu, Zhu Di suffered a series of disasters that suggested to everyone that he had lost the "mandate of heaven" -- the approval of Heaven for his rulership.


Read p75 and stop at the paragraph beginning "The shock killed the emperor's favourite concubine."

Read p78 (from "Apparently abandoned by heaven...") to p. 81 (stop at "Zhu Di's funeral has the same epic quality as his life.")

Finally read the edict of the new emperor, Zhu Di's son, Zhu Gaozhi, on the very day he ascended the throne, pp 81-85, beginning "All voyages of the treasure ships are to be stopped."

Class 11 A: 9/2; D&F: 9/5 and Class 12 A: 9/6, D&F 9/7

So while Europe was just emerging from its "Dark Ages" (aka The Middle Ages or The Medieval Age); the Islamic Empire was experiencing a "Golden Age". So was China:

As you go through this guided reading, post your ideas about each image, and your answers to all questions, directly on you gallery page. Don't forget to date your post, and give this assignment a title.
China's Golden Age

In 1421, China launched a fleet of over 800 ships of various sizes and carried more than 30,000 men. The fleet included over 300 leviathan "treasure ships," which were 480 ft long and 180 ft wide. Compare with the Santa Maria (Columbus' vessel), which was 150 ft long and a mere 20 ft wide.

Before Japan's attempt to create an empire failed, China had experienced it's own Age of Discovery. You'll be reading about it in the excerpt I've given you from Gavin Menzie's book 1421: The Year China Discovered the World.


Europe in 1400

Read the first paragraph of p. 45 Use this map, and the one in MWH p35, to identify where "the Holy Roman Emperor, the Emperor of Byzantium (also called Constantinople), the Doge (ruler) of Venice, and the kings of England, France, Castille and Portugal" would have come from had they been invited to Beijing on 2 February 1421.

The Emperor Zhu Di (aka Yong Le)was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty. His father, a poor labourer, had overthrown the Mongol (Yuan) Dynasty which had ruled China since Kublai Khan invaded in 1279. In 1368, Zhu Di's father had taken the Mongol capital, Ta-tu (Beijing), sacked it, pushed the Mongols back behind the Great Wall, and then retired to establish his capital city in Nanjing.


When Zhu Di came to power (his father gave the throne to his nephew instead of his son, so Zhu Di fought and defeated the second emperor), he decided to build a magnificent new capital, to be called the Forbidden City, in Beijing, to humiliate the Mongol leader Tamerlane, who dreamed of re-taking it.

The "Silk Road", along which Chinese traders journeyed to sell their silks, spices, porcelain and other valuable commodities, was actually a web of many routes that extended from Xi'an into the heart of the Islamic world.
Through what MODERN countries did the silk roads go?

On p. 53 Menzie notes that the new walled capital was to be "fifteen hundred times the area of walled London at that time and housing fifty times the population".



Compare this map of the great walled capital Zhu Di built, to this map of modern China. The Forbidden City is now the Palace Museum, and is located at the centre of the map below:


On p. 54, Menzies writes that Zhu Di extended the Great Wall (which is actually many separate sections of wall created over hundreds of years) from 5,000 kms to 6,400 kms. You'll notice, that doesn't mean that the wall was 6,400 kms long. If it WAS, where would it reach, if it began at the Yalu River? Use the map in MWH Atlas p A18-19 to estimate where you would end up if the wall really extended 6,400 kms due west of Beijing.

On p. 55, Menzies writes that "[Zhu Di's] aim was to ensure that Beijing's great observatory was the reference point from which the entire world would be explored and charted, and all new discoveries located..." He wanted Beijing to be "0" degree -- the prime meridian, from which all LONGITUDE coordinates would be measured. Unfortunately, he failed in this aim, and eventually (much later, in 1851) Greenwich, England was chosen for this honor.


Read from p 59 (from "The whole of China...") to the bottom of p 64 (stop before the paragraph beginning "Admiral Zheng He, dressed in his formal uniform...").


The Grand Canal and the Forbidden city were engineering marvels of the 15th century, and HUGE accomplishments for a a single ruler to achieve in less than 2 decades. But they were not his most important legacy.

Class 10 A: 8/31; D: 9/1; F: 9/2

  • Introduction to Gavin Menzies' 1421: The Year China Discovered the World, which we will be working on IN CLASS over the net 3 classes.
  • Take up Renaissance questions from the textbook

Class 9 A & D: 8/30, F: 8/31

Did you Know???

Many people say HUMANITY is living through another RENAISSANCE...a change in the way we think and learn. What do you think?

After watching this , what is the most important point you think it is trying to make? What does that have to do with our study of history?

Cultural Interactions: The Islamic World and Western Europe
Prior to the Renaissance, in what has been called the "Dark Ages", it is generally held that Western Europe's cultural and intellectual development was virtually at a standstill, or even regressing. So what was it that led them to break out of this period, and emerge into the new age of intellectual curiosity, the Renaissance? How did Europe, which had for long valued only one kind of learning - scholasticism (Christian learning) - begin to "open its mind"? What was the spark that re-ignited a spirit of intellectual curiosity?

The spread of Islam

Ummayyad Empire 661-75 A.D.

Abbasid Empire 750-1258


Class 8

A: 8/26
  • Take up "Many Hats of a Historian"
  • Take up Turning Points in Pre-Renaissance History

D & F: 8/29
  • Take up APPARTS - "The Black Death". I you received a "U" (Unsatisfactory) grade on this, you will have a third opportunity to demonstrate your mastery. See the Homework page for details. Due Class 10.

Beginning our Journey into Modern World History

We need to ALL get back on the same page as we dive into our study of Modern World History. What have been the significant turning points in HUMAN history up to our "starting line", the 15th century?

The beginning of OUR story this year...The "Dark Ages" in Europe. (By the way, just because Europe was in the dark for 1,000 years does not mean the rest of the word was! We will explore that later...) Suffice to say, Europe really had a long period of well...let's just say life was tough!


Read pages 37-39 in your ONLINE text (including the box on bottom of p.39 dealing with "Renaissance man and woman") and thoughtfully answer the following questions . Please print your answers out before next class. Make sure you
  • Write neatly, or type your work
  • Include your name, the date you worked on the assignment, your block, and an appropriate title for your work. "Questions" or "Homework" is not an appropriate title.
  • Do not begin answers with a dash ("-") or bullet point. Leave a space after the question, or indent your answer.
  • Answer in complete sentences.
  • Answers should be thorough, and address all parts of the question.

1. How did the cities of Italy help create the Renaissance?

2. What is your opinion of the Medici family?

3. How did Humanism influence Renaissance ideas?

4. Why did church leaders and wealthy merchants support the arts?

5. What were the similarities and differences between upper-class Renaissance men and women?

6. After reading the "Analyzing Primary Sources" box, respond to this question: Do the qualities called for in the ideal Renaissance man and woman seem to emphasize the individual or the group? Give evidence in the documents to back up your answer!

"Big Picture" Ideas

  • Civilizations have risen (and fallen) throughout human history, with various regions of the world experiencing "highs" and "lows" in a continuous shifting of power, wealth and dominance.
  • The rise of Europe as the dominant world power in the 18th century was different from all the other dominant civilizations of the past because of its dominance was, for the first time, truly global.
  • The reasons for European dominance have their roots in shifts in thinking which had been occurring since the middle of the 15th century.
  • Why was it Europe, rather than, for example China, which became the dominant force in the modern world?

Learning Objectives:

  1. Understand how Renaissance humanism sparked a new opening of the European mind, and new developments in the arts and in political systems, was sparked by intellectual exchanges with the Islamic world, and through them, the Far East.
  2. Compare and contrast the European Age of Discovery and the Chinese Age of Discovery, both of which occurred in the 15th century.
  3. Understand how the development of the scientific method, and the shift to heliocentrism, in Europe revolutionized the accumulation and acceleration of knowledge in all areas and equipped Europe to lead the world in innovation.
  4. Analyze the causes and consequences of the challenges to the dominance of the Catholic church, and the impact of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation on the European social order.
  5. Judge the impact of increased globalization as Europe expanded its trade with and domination of the Americas, Africa and Asia.
  6. Understand the importance of the European Age of Enlightenment in further fueling European advances in science and technology, and new political institutions.
  7. Continue to develop knowledge of world geography
  8. Practice analyzing maps, charts and graphs
  9. Continue to develop research skills, with focus on developing complex thesis statements and supporting them with evidence.
  10. Practice analyzing and interpret primary sources using APPARTS.