Welcome to UNIT 4 - Industrialism and the Race for Empire! (You thought things moved quickly before? WAIT until you see how mankind moves in this next period of time - roughly 1700-1900)

This unit describes the effects of the industrial revolution on Western nations and the nations' race to divide Asia and Africa among themselves. Colonial rule brings more hardships than benefits to native peoples, who eventually rebel against Western rulers. (from your text)
Some Major Themes we will study:
  • The establishment of European nation-states and the role of Nationalism
  • Industrial revolution and its dramatic impacts on the world
  • Imperialism in Africa and Asia and how it still affects the world today
  • The reactions of regions of the world to Western economic domination
  • The march of democracy and progress for many (but certainly not all)
  • Impacts of the dramatic scientific and technological changes on societies

Class 15 A: 2/14, D&F: 2/15

The rise of Nationalism

The Ideals of Nationalism

Nationalism arose in the early 1800's as a relatively new point of view and it drove many of the changes that occurred during the 1800's and 1900's. The rise of modern nationalism is tied to the spread of democratic ideas and the growth of an educated middle class. People wanted to decide how they were governed, instead of having monarchs impose government on them.

If you can't see this image, it is the Bonds That Create a Nation-State, p. 254


In a nation-state, people are linked by such common bonds as government, culture, and history.

It is important to know that prior to the 19th century, most people did not identify themselves as being a citizen of a nation, but gave their loyalty to their city, to their family or to their religion. These were the things that defined your identity. But in the 19th century, people began to talk about "nations". Why?
  • revolutionary movements
  • the rise of democracies
  • reaction against Napoleon's empire building
  • Congress of Vienna's attempt to "turn back time" and restore the monarchies and ancien regimes (old orders)
  • independence movements
  • unification movements
  • attempts to suppress independence and unification movements

Impact of Nationalism

Nationalism has positive and negative implications (e.g. extremely strong nationalistic feelings sometimes lead a group to turn against outsiders). Using the table below, record the positive and negative impacts of Nationalism. Use page 254 of the textbook to help you.

Positive and Negative Impacts of Nationalism
Positive Results
Negative Results

Do you think nationalism has had a more positive or negative impact on the world? Support your opinion with evidence.

Types of Nationalist Movements

We have looked at the rise of Nationalism and the positive and negative impacts that it has had on the modern world. Now, we are going to investigate the effects of nationalism on a region. The rise of nationalism tends to either unify or separate people.

If you can't see this chart, it is Types of Nationalist Movements, p. 258


1. Using the table above, explain the characteristics of each type of Nationalistic movement in your own words.
2. What do you think would have happened to the empires (e.g. Austrian Empire, Ottoman Empire) during the rise of nationalism?

Connect to online textbook- pg 260
As we read about the unification of Italy, think about the role that nationalism plays in building a nation.

Key Skill: Analyzing Political Cartoons
Look at the cartoon on page 261 and complete the questions.

On your own, read about the unification of Germany (online textbook pgs 261-263).
1) Create a flow chart that shows the key events that led the unification of Germany.
2) Looking at the map on page 263, answer the two geography skillbuilder questions.
3) Design a national symbol for the newly formed Germany. Include symbols that best represent the spirit or values of the German people at this time. Write a short paragraph explaining your symbol and its significance.

Example: South Korean Coat of Arms

The National Emblem of the Republic of Korea consists in the taeguk symbol present on the country's national flag surrounded by five stylized petals and a ribbon bearing the inscription "The Republic of Korea" (Daehan Minguk), the official name of the country, in Hangul characters. The taijitu (yin-yang) represents peace and harmony. The five petals all have meaning and are related to Korea's national flower (the Hibiscus syriacus, or Rose of Sharon). It was adopted in 1963.

Complete the above tasks

Class 14 A: 2/10, D: 2/13, F: 2/14

In today's class, you will be given the opportunity to work with a number of primary and secondary sources that show different perspectives on the colonization of India over two centuries.

Work with two handouts, a Case Study of India and Britain, and packet of primary source documents.
  1. Read and annotate the Case Study (highlight key information, noting comments/questions in the margins; don't forget IMAGES) before you start on the questions. This will be checked next class.
  2. Complete "Terms and Names" (significance, not definitions) and Questions 1-13 on your gallery page. This assignment is being graded for CONTENT, not just completion, so answer carefully. You will need to read the primary source document packet to answer questions 6-8. Look at the three sets of Document-Based Questions (pp 10, 12 and 13 of the primary source document packet) and answer them IN YOUR HEAD. You do NOT need to write the answers to these questions on your gallery page, but they will help you give good answers to questions 6-8 of the Case Study questions.
  3. Complete any unfinished work for homework.

Class 13 A&D: 2/9, F: 2/10

Global Impact of Imperialism

Key Skill: Note-taking from audio-visual sources

1) Watch a student's presentation on the reactions to Imperialism by China and Japan above and take detailed notes. Use the table below. Read American Imperialism Overview to complete the 3rd column.

Reactions to Imperialism
United States of America

2) Find one political cartoon for the impact of imperialism in China, one for the impact on Korea and one for American Imperialism. Include these cartoons in your notes and answers the following questions:
1) Is this image pro or anti imperialism? How do you know?
2) What views of the native peoples are being communicated in each of the illustrations?
3) What views are being communicated about the Europeans/Japanese in their role as imperialists?
4) What is message is being conveyed by the author about the benefits OR costs of imperialism?

Economic Imperialism

Watch the video below but stop at 10:55. Put you answers on your gallery page.

1) Feudalism and mercantilism were two economic systems that preceded capitalism. Review and summarize (in your own words) how they generated wealth. How does capitalism DIFFER from these two systems?
2) According to this lecturer, what forces drive capitalism?

Class 12 A: 2/7, D&F: 2/8

The Scramble for Africa

Task 1:

Discuss table from the Reading on Imperialism with a partner.

Task 2: Scramble for Africa

Take a look at the map below (or online text pp 343)
1) Which countries controlled the largest sections of Africa in 1914?
2) Why do you think these countries had the largest area of Africa?


Task 3:

Watch the video below and continue to add to your notes. Make sure that you include the long term impacts of Colonization as well.

Task 4:

For more information read **European Imperialism in Africa (Overview)** on ABC Clio (user id is kis, pw is welcome) and answer the questions below
1) What was the Berlin Conference?
2) What were the three outcomes of the conference?

Task 5:

Key Skill: Analyzing Political Cartoons (ask the teacher for the handout)
Look through the 'Images of Imperialism' handout. For each of the images answer the following questions using evidence from the image to support your ideas.
NOTE: You really need to analyze why an Artist has used certain images or words. Remember: a picture is worth a 1000 words!!!

1) Is this image pro or anti imperialism? How do you know?
2) What views of African and Asians are being communicated in each of the illustrations?
3) What views are being communicated about the British/ Americans in their role as imperialists?
4) What is message is being conveyed by the author about the benefits OR costs of imperialism?

Class 11 A: 2/3 I will be absent so you will have a substitute teacher. D&F: 2/6

Justifications for Imperialism

"By 'imperialism' I mean the process whereby the dominant politico-economic interests of one nation expropriate for their own enrichment the land, labor, raw materials, and markets of another people." Michael Parenti

The act of imperialism has truly changed the face of this earth. The world's distrust towards nations with wealth become much clearer as the Age of Imperialism unfolds. The first example we will be looking at is the relationship between Europe and Africa. Here are some questions you should ask yourself while studying this unit.

1. Why did imperialism start in Europe?
2. What was the incentive of Europe to become imperialists over other countries?
3. Why was Africa imperialized?
4. How did imperialism change the world?
5. Do the benefits of imperialism outweigh the costs?

Discuss your responses to 'The white Man's Burden' with a partner.

Just to refresh your memory.... :)

What does Darwin say about Imperialism?

Read the experts below and answer the document based question. Your response should be at least one paragraph in length and posted on your gallery page.

Introduction to Imperialism: Reading

Read pages 10-16 of the handout (Imperialism in the Modern Age: A History in Documents) and take notes on the reasons and justifications for Imperialism, areas that were imperialised and the impact of imperialism (positive and negative).

Go to the KIS server (Share Folder Login)
Then click MS (Yes I know it's the Middle School, but many can't get into the HS Student Share files!)
Then click Student Share
Then click on "Imperialism in the Modern Age"

Use this table to help you organize your ideas

Complete the tasks above. Post all work on your gallery page.

Class 10 A: 2/1, D: 2/2, F: 2/3

The spread of the Industrial Revolution from England to America and then the rest of the world led to an era of reforms to try to counter the negative effects of industrialism.

Some examples of 19th century reform movements that led to changes for people:

  • Labor unions and gradual improvement of some working conditions

  • Abolition of slavery

  • Fight for Women's Rights

  • Free public education

  • Suffrage Movement (England and then US)

1. Define the term Suffrage

2. Respond to the SKILLBUILDER questions related to the following pie charts...


An Age of Democracy and Progress
The rapid industrialization also sparked a wave of new TECHNOLOGIES and new IDEAS that TRANSFORMED humanity as never before!


1. How would you have felt being European during this time period?
2. How would you have seen other parts of the world that weren’t going through this rapid change and development?

Class 9 A&D: 1/31, F: 2/1

Karl Marx & The Communist Manifesto

Look at this image and this article. Would Marx have agree that these countries were "communist"? What has happened to the "communist" world (once called the "Second World", to distinguish it from the "First World" -- wealthy capitalist countries, and the "Third World" -- poor countries)? Why do you think this has happened? What do you think of the idea that the growing gap between the rich and poor in the industrialized world never materialized (see p. 270) because of the Union movement and reform laws?

On the map provided, complete the following:
  • Label and colour the countries that adopted communism
  • Indicate which countries are still communist today
  • Give your map a title and key

1) Looking at your map, which areas of the world adopted communism. Why did it rise in these areas?
2) What has happened to the spread of communism in the past 100 years. Why do you think this is?

Class 8 A: 1/27, D&F: 1/30

  • Thinking in the Post-Industrial New World
    Countries which embraced industrialization underwent dramatic economic, social and political change. How did people try to make sense of this rapidly changing world? Were they optimistic or pessimistic about the future? For better or worse, once it started, the genie of industrialization could not be put back into the bottle.

    Karl Marx and his friend Friedrich Engels responded to the misery and injustice he saw in Britain as it was swept up in the Industrial Revolution. We'll want to look at that in more detail, but first, let's look at the idea that drove the Industrial Revolution: Capitalism.

  • Read what Adam Smith had to say about it. (Handout). Smith's ideas about the marketplace, competition, the "invisible hand", and human self-interest were the foundation of laissez-faire capitalism (see p. 270 old hard copy, or p. 303 online or new hard copy).

    Which brings us to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, two Germans who had a very different vision of the post-industrial revolution world.
    They argued all societies went through natural stages of development:

    Feudalism => Capitalism => Socialism => Communism

    There's more about this on pp 268-270 (old hard copy).

Class 7 A: 1/25, D&F: 1/26 (I will be absent for D & F block so you will have a substitute)

  • Use class time to work on Industrial Revolution C-C-C. Your final posters will be due at the beginning of class 8 (See Homework page for specific instructions). Remember that after practicing this skill, I'm looking for 1) explanations (don't need to be complete sentences) that explain WHY you've put each fact in that particular category; 2) facts being placed in the correct category (ie. did this thing actually CAUSE the I.R.? Was this a consequence OF the Revolution?

Class 6 A: 1/19, D: 1/20, F: 1/25

  • Either working on Industrial Revolution reading (textbook) and question OR photo essay and question.

Class 5 A&D: 1/18; F: 1/19

The Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in Britain: Lecture

This lifestyle, common across Europe,


is replaced by...


Life in pre- (i.e. before the industrial revolution) times might have been difficult, poor and short, (remember the video clip we watched last class? Average life expectancy was under 40 years, and incomes were very low), but there were some good things about that time. Most farmers in Britain owned their own small farms and were able to feed themselves and make what they needed to survive, with enough surplus to sell at local markets for the cash to buy other necessary items like salt, tobacco (cigarettes weren't invented until late 19th century), tea and sugar. Most people kept at least a pig and chickens, and perhaps a goats or cows, which could be tethered on the village Common. A person didn't need much land to keep a family alive.


Weaving demonstration



Class 4 A: 1/16, D&F: 1/17

The Industrial Revolution

So how did these revolutions -- the Scientific Revolution, the Reformation (which was a religious revolution), the American, French, Haitian and all those other revolutions in Latin America -- how did these revolutions change the world? Remember the IDEA that there COULD be a revolution was something, well, revolutionary! Let's look again at the quote you chose as the centerpiece of your revolutionary poster. Do you still think it's appropriate? Would you choose a different quote if you could do it over?

So now we want to turn our attention to a different kind of revolution, a revolution that was about to change life for everyone, not just in one country, or region, but for the entire world: the Industrial Revolution. Probably nothing that we have studied so far has had as great an impact on the life you life today.

The Impact of the Industrial Revolution

This was an exciting time for humanity but it also caused a lot of disruption and change which made some people uncomfortable with how fast things were moving (are there people like that today?)
  • There was an EXPLOSION of inventions and technological advances in agriculture, industry, transportation, communication...
  • Global power and wealth shifted to the industrialized nations
  • Economic and social systems were transformed as nations changed production and distribution methods

We can get a feeling for how dramatic these changes were by examining the short chapter, "Men and Machines" from E.H. Gombrich's book, A Little History of the World.

In groups of 3, I'd like you to read aloud this short introduction to the Industrial Revolution from Ernst Gombrick's A Little History of the World out loud. After each person finishes reading his/her section, the person to their right must "verbally annotate" what's been read. In other words, you must RESPOND to what you've just heard in the same way you use the bottom section of your Cornell notes to respond to readings. These responses could be:

  • questions that are raised by what's just been read
  • insightful connections with something you already know
  • comments on the author's point of view, opinion or perspective
  • musings about "how we know" what's being discussed
  • challenges (based on fact or knowledge, not on prejudice or emotion) to the validity of statements
  • comments about why this MATTERS
  • feelings or emotional response
  • efforts to deepen your understanding of what you've heard

Notice that none of these interactions are SUMMARIZING what's been said. The job of summarizing what's been read is done by someone else in the group. Once a part of the reading (I suggest no more than 2 or 3 paragraphs) has been read, summarized and verbally annotated, switch roles and continue reading.