Class 37 A&D: 4/20, F: 4/23

  • Q&A on Fascism
  • Oral quiz on Fascism

Class 36 A: 4/18, D&F: 4/19

  • Oral quiz on the Great Depression

Fascism Rises in Europe

  • You have already learned how the military controlled the government of Japan in the early decades of the 20th century. As the world reels from the lingering effects of WW I, the economic impact of the US stock market crass and the global Depression, and the effects of droughts and food shortages in various parts of the world, it must have seemed like things were never going to get better.The new government of Germany, the Weimar Republic (remember the Kaiser had to give up the throne as part of the armistice demands) struggled to cope with massive inflation and high unemployment. Asia suffered as the value of their exports fell by half and tariff walls choked off international trade. In the U.S., Franklin Delano Roosevelt had introduced the New Deal, and then the Second New Deal, restoring confidence in the banking industry, and in the government. France, Britain and the socialist countries of Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden and Norway) also managed to weather the storms and preserve their democratic governments. But some countries looked for a solution to their problems in strong leadership, even if it meant sacrificing some democratic freedoms. You've already looked at the totalitarian leadership of Josef Stalin in the USSR and Mao Zedong in China. Now let's look at Spain and Italy, before turning our attention to Adolf Hitler and the rise of National Socialism (Nazism) in Germany.

  • Here are some Early Warning Signs of the rise of fascism:

Dr. Lawrence Britt has examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes. Britt found 14 defining characteristics common to each:

1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism - Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.

2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights - Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of "need." The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.

3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause - The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.

4. Supremacy of the Military - Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.

5. Rampant Sexism - The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion and homosexuality are suppressed and the state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution.

6. Controlled Mass Media - Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.

7. Obsession with National Security - Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.

8. Religion and Government are Intertwined - Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government's policies or actions.

9. Corporate Power is Protected - The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.

10. Labor Power is Suppressed - Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed.

11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts - Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked.

12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment - Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.

13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption - Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.

14. Fraudulent Elections - Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.

*Information above was taken directly from an article that was produced by Dr. Lawrence Britt in Free Inquiry magazine, Volume 23, Number 2. Or click on the link provided here for more information.

Read and take notes on the reading on Spain: Francisco Franco ("Civil War Erupts in Spain," p 483)

Guernica" by Pablo Picasso
Guernica" by Pablo Picasso

Guernica" by Pablo Picasso
Painted by Pablo Picasso after the aerial bombardment of the Spanish city of Guernica in April 1937 by Italian and German planes practicingfor the blitzkreig which would later be used in World War II against Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and others.

Italy: Benito Mussolini ("Setting the Stage" and "Fascism's Rise in Italy," pp 476-477, and "Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia" p 482).

Class 35 A: 4/16, D&F: 4/17

  • Complete Great Depression stations from last class (45 minutes)
  • Q&A on the Depression, followed by oral quiz

Class 34 A: 4/12, D&F 4/13

The Great Depression

Station 1

Read the "Chapter in Brief" section on "Postwar Uncertainty" and "A Worldwide Depression" and annotate focusing on the underlying problems in the US and world economy which CAUSED the Depression AND how different countries attempted to SOLVE the problems. Create an organizer for your information (digital or hard copy).

Station 2

Look at this Photo Essay on the Great Depression, carefully reading the captions and examining the images. Talk about what you see as a group, then write 2 newspaper headlines, one from the International Herald Tribune, and one from the New York Times might run if these pictures were taken today. Think about how headlines use strong, attention-getting words. Once you have your headlines, write the thesis statement and three paragraph topic sentences for each article (i.e. what's the main point, and what are 3 points that support that thesis).

Station 3

Watch these short videos and take notes.

29 Minute Overview
A teacher's summary, with an international focus(no need to watch the summary) and this documentary (you can start from 0:40 and watch to the end)

Another Great Depression...Today?

We have never heard more references to the Great Depression than today. Many are calling the current economic crisis, the Great Recession, because we learned so much about the Great Depression that we can hopefully keep the most terrible aspects of it from happening again, but not enough to correct the problem very quickly. You may already know something about the current economic crisis, but this short article will help explain some of it.

Class 33 A&D: 4/11; F: 4/12

  • Complete work on Asia in the Inter-War period.

Class 32 A: 4/9; D&F: 4/10
  • Oral quiz on Russian Revolution


    Station 1:

  • Read "Imperial China Collapses" from the Chapters in Brief and answer #4 on your gallery page.

Station 2:

  • Look at this Website on Japan's 1931 invasion of China. Read the Chapter in Brief on "Modernization in Japan", paying particular attention to Japan's invasion of Korea. Then read "A Justification of Japanese Expansionism". With these 3 sources, write a short chapter for a English-language history book to be used in Korean high schools about Japan's role in Asia in the first half of the 20th century. Decide what graphs, charts, maps or images (up to 3) you would want to include (these do not need to be "real" -- just describe what you'd like them to show, and come up with a title or caption for each). Post on your gallery page.

Station 3:
  • Watch these two clips about the Father of the Peoples' Republic of China:
CBC-The Real Mao Tse Tung

Was Mao a better or worse national leader than Stalin? Answer on your gallery page.

Class 31 A: 4/5, D&F: 4/6

The Russian Revolution

Station 1) Overview of Russian Revolution

Read the "Chapter in Brief" section on the Russian Revolution and then explain, on your gallery page, why Russia had a revolution in 1917.

Station 2) Primary and Secondary Sources: Video

Watch the following video clips on Lenin and Stalin:

2. BBC on Stalin

3. (This video has three parts)

Now, upload a podcast on your gallery page in which you explain whether Stalin was a good guy or a bad guy, and why.

Station 3) Tools to Persuade and Motivate- Propaganda

Competition for Russia: With the Russian Tsar out of power, competition for political power was in full forces as differing political opinions started to crawl out of the woodwork of a repressed civilization. As we have studied before, the ideas of conservativism, liberalism and radicalism will be a theme once again. As we saw last unit, one form of media that started to establish itself was the use of posters that were made to convince the majority of the population of a particular point of view about competing political ideologies, also known as propaganda. Here is an example of some Russian propaganda during the the Russian Revolution, approximately mid- to late 1910's.

workers of the world.jpg
workers of the world.jpg

Russian Revoluton Propaganda Poster `Lets work, but gun is ready!`
Russian Revoluton Propaganda Poster `Lets work, but gun is ready!`

Russian Revoluton Propaganda Poster `Lets work, but gun is ready!`

Check out more propaganda here:

Pick one of the propaganda pieces from the website above and answer the following questions:

1. What is the message that this poster is trying to get out to the Russian people?

2. Do you find this piece of propaganda to be compelling? Why or why not?

3. Make your own propaganda poster designed to make viewers adopt your viewpoint on one of the following issues: school uniforms; freedom of speech; hagwons

Class 30 A: 4/3, D: 4/4, F: 4/5




The Inter-War Years
World War I ended with on November 11, 1918 with the signing of the armistice (except for Russia, for whom the war ended in 1917 with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk). The Versailles Conference, that hammered out the terms of the peace, took several months, so the "peace" really didn't begin until 1919, so that is the beginning of our "Inter-War Period".

The peace, so hard-won, only lasted a few years. Most historians mark 1939 as the beginning of World War II (which can also be seen as "World War, Chapter 2" since in many ways it was a continuation of WW I after a brief "pause"). It was in 1939 that Germany invaded Poland, bringing Britain (Poland's ally -- man, we've seen this before, right!) into the war, and then so many other countries that again, the world was at war.

But wait! The world was NOT at peace from 1919 to 1939. Here in Asia, Japan really started World War II with its invasion of China in 1931, and when the League of Nations didn't do anything about that, Italy decided to try its luck, and invaded Ethiopia (then called Abyssinia) in 1935. So by the time Germany got around to invading Poland in 1939 (oh yeah, it had already invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia, but the League of Nations, and the world, pretended not to notice), the "Inter-war years" were already over -- at least if you happened to be living in China, Japan, Italy, Abyssinia, Austria, Czechoslovakia or Germany!

We will be looking at the period between 1919 and 1939 from several different viewpoints:

  • The Russian Revolution (s) and the new Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a.k.a. "The U.S.S.R." or "The Soviet Union")
  • The Revolution(s) in China
  • Growing Militarism in Japan
  • The Great Depression
  • The Zeitgeist of the Inter-War Period
  • The Failure of the League of Nations
  • The Rise of Fascism and Totalitarian Regimes


  • Examine the unrest in Russia that erupted into revolution to produce the world's first communist government.
  • Assess the effects of the Lenin's political philosophy including the New Economic Policy.
  • Describe the rise to power and tactics used by Joseph Stalin to power in the Soviet Union.
  • Examine struggle between Communists and Nationalists in China.
  • Explore how new ideas in art, literature and science challenged the traditional ways of thinking and living.
  • Assess the global impacts of the Great Depression.
  • Compare and contrast the rise of fascism in Italy, Germany and Spain, the empire-building of Japan, and the Communist dictatorship in the USSR and how each will lead to another world-wide conflict.

Read pp 424-427, and the Visual Summary on p. 428, then answer Question #2 Evaluating Decisions on p. 428 and post your answer on your gallery.